The symptoms of overactive thyroid gland are directly related to the excessive amount of the thyroid hormone in the blood. These symptoms can be logically related to the presumed function of the thyroid hormone in the body. All the symptoms that result due to overactive thyroid gland will be discussed in this article. The symptoms of this disorder can be rationally related to the excess of this hormone in the blood in the same way that symptoms of hypothyroidism can also be logically related to the deficiency of the hyroid hormone in the blood.
The thyroid gland is an important endocrine gland in the body due to its function in maintaining and sustaining growth of the individuals. There are two types of hormones that are secreted by the thyroid gland and which each has a completely different function in the body. These two hormones are the thyroid hormone and calcitonin. With respect to the symptoms of the overactive thyroid gland so they usually arise due to the excess of the thyrod hormone in the blood.
Calcitonin does not seem to play any significant role in the etiology of this disorder. Calcitonin is important clinically in one type of thyroid cancer in which it is secreted in excess to the bood circulation by the diseased parafollicular cells which specialize normally in the secretion of this hormone. Calcitonin has a role in bone and calcium homeostasis in the body. It enhances the deposition of calcium salts on the bone tissue. This function does not seem to be affected in the overactive condition of the thyroid gland.
There are two hormones under the category of the thyroid hormone. These are: Thyroxine and tri-iodo thyronine. They differ only by the number of iodine atoms on each molecule. Thyroid hormone has many functions in the body that affect almost every tissue in the body. It has a general effect on increasing the metabolic rate in the body due to the excessive amount of this hormone in the blood by the overactive thyroid gland.
The thyroid hormone is a derivative of the amino acid tyrosine. In addition, its synthesis requires iodine atoms which are normally obtained in the diet that is rich with iodine. An example is table salt that bought in the USA which is usually supported with iodine atoms. Deficiency of iodine in the body can cause Goiter or enlargement of the thyroid gland due to the hyperplasia which it undergoes as a result of the iodine deficiency in the body.
The increase of metabolic rate in the body due to the excessive amount of the thyroid hormone can be manifested in many of the symptoms of this disorder. An example, is the development of diarrhea in the affected individuals. This symptom can be logically rationalized by the fact that the increased rate of metabolism in the body leads to increased motility of the gastrointestinal tract, thus causing frequent passing of stool.
Also there is the symptom of weight loss due to this disorder which can be explained also based on the increased metabolic rate in the body. As a result of the increase in the metabolism in the body by the effect of the increase in the amount of the thyroid hormone there is energy depletion from the body resources. In addition, compounds in the body are degraded also in an accelerated rate. This leads to the depletion of energetic molecules from the body. All this can cause eventually weight loss.
This symptom can be confirmed by the presence of weight gain in the opposite syndrome of low active thyroid gland or hypothyroidism. Also due to the increase in metabolic rate in this medical condition there is an increase in heart rate and an increase in sweating. The opposite of this symptom is observed in hypothyroidism, the thing that can confirm the postulate that these symptoms are the direct result of the hyperactivity of the thyroid gland.
Patients of this disorder usually are nervous and irritable probably due to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. There is also an increase in the action of the sympathetic nervous system which can give rise to symptoms that are similar to those that are usually triggered by the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. The skin of affected individuals is usually soft and warm in this condition.