Types of hypertension depend on the cause that is making the elevated blood pressure. Hypertension or elevated blood pressure is defined as a systolic pressure above 120 mmHg fir young people and above 140mmHg for elderly people. In addition, it is defined as a diastolic pressure of higher than 80 mmHg.
In certain cases of chronic hypertension there is a familial trend in which a genetic cause is suspected. In this case the treatment is to administer drugs that can dilate blood vessels. This type of drugs is of a temporary ameliorative effect that must be given for ever to the individual.
There are many causes to hypertension. An example is polycythemia or increased blood viscosity. This condition can be caused for example in renal carcinoma or due to elevated level of the hormone eryhtropoietin in the blood. Congestive heart failure can also cause hypertension in which case abstension of drinking much is a hallmark of the treatment.
In most cases blood pressure is controlled by hormonal regulation. Therefore, these hormones can be target for pharmacologic drugs as to lower or increase the blood pressure depending on the state of the patient. As an example the hormone aldosterone is a major factor in the etiology of hypertension.
This hormone usually functions by stimulating the reabsorption of sodium ions and water in the kidney tubules. It is a target for pharmacological drugs such as the drug spironolactone which antagonizes the action of aldosterone which can lower blood pressure and in addition it can cause hyperkalemia as a side effect. It can ameliorate blood pressure by inducing natriuresis and water excretion in the urine.
Aldosterone excess in the blood can occur in the medical condition of conn’s syndrome. Treatment to this condition include the removal of the source of aldosterone excess by surgery or by administering antagonists to aldosterone function.
Another hormone which can also have effect on blood pressurebut to a lesser extent is called atrial natriuretic hormone. This hormone is usually secreted by the heart cells in the case of hypertesion. It is secreted physiologically in case of increased blood pressure. This hormone has less significant effect that the other hormone which has a higher effect on blood pressure such as aldosterone. Theoretically speaking, agonizing the effect of this hormone would also constitute another alternative to treatment of hypertension.
The other hormone which has an effect on blood pressure and which constitute a target for pharmacological drugs against hypertension is antidiuretic hormone. The condition of hypertension which is associated with this hormone is called syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone.
In this ondition there is elevated secretion of this hormone from the posterior pituitary gland or ectopically by a malignant tumour in the body. The net result to this is excessive conservation of water in the kidney tubules to the blood circulation with subsequent development of hypertension and edema. The treatment to this condition is to remove the source of malignancy that is causing the secretion of this hormone. In addition, antagonizing its effect constitute another possibility. Also in thi case diuretics can also be another option which can ameliorate blood pressure elevation.
Another condition that can cause high blood pressure is called pheochromocytoma. This is a tumour of the adrenal medulla which oversecretes the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. The result is constriction of blood vessels with subsequent development of hypertension and edema. The treatment would constitute the elimination of the tumour that is causing the symptoms.
In addition to the afore mentioned medical conditions also chronic renal failure can cause elevated blood pressure due to the retention in the blood of sodium ions and water. The treatment to this condition is to administer diuretics and ACE inhibitors. Also liver failure can cause potential for elevated blood pressure and edema due to the errored metabolism of the hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone by the liver cells due to its dysfunction.