Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is one of the most common disorders in children, and can continue through adolescence and adulthood.
ADHD has three sub types:
-Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories
-Fewer then six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree
-The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer then six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to a certain degree
-Children with this sub type are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but not pay attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers will not realized the child has ADHD.
Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive”
-Six or more symptoms in both hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention are present
-Most children have the combined type of ADHD
All three of the sub types are key behaviors of ADHD., but children with ADHD have these behaviors more frequently and more severe.
All children tend to be inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive sometimes. In order for the child to be diagnosed with ADHD, the child must have symptoms for six or more months, and to a degree greater than other children:
Children with symptoms of inattention may:
-be easily distracted
-frequently switch from on task to another
-have difficulty focusing on one thing
-become bored with a task after only several minutes, unless doing something they enjoy
-not seem to listen when spoken to
-struggle to follow instructions
Children with symptoms of hyperactivity may:
-fidget and squirm in their seats
-talk constantly and nonstop
-run round, touching or playing with everything and anything in range
-be constantly in motion
Children with symptoms of impulsivity may:
-blurt out inappropriate comments
-show emotions without restraint
-act without thinking of the consequences
-have difficulty waiting for things things they want
-often interrupts conversations and others’ activities
Scientist are not 100 percent sure what causes ADHD, but many studies suggest genes play a large role. Like other illnesses, ADHD can result from a combination of factors. Including genetics, researchers look at other possible factors, including environmental factors, brain injuries, nutrition, and the social setting, which may contribute to the development of ADHD.
It is often hard to diagnose ADHD in a child, due to different personalities and different mature rates. No single test can diagnose the disorder, but instead, a licensed health specialist needs to gather information about the child, and their behavior and environments. The specialist will first rule out the possibilities for the symptoms. The specialist also gathers information from adults who know the child well. In the end, if the child meets the criteria for ADHD, they will be diagnosed with the disorder.
Current available treatments focus mainly on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improve functioning. These treatments include to medication, a variety of types of psychotherapy, education and training, or a combination of treatments.
Hopefully, researchers and scientists will find more ways to prevent or even a cure for ADHD.